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Buds and flowers of mango, Manifera indica …Phát hoa của cây Xoài ….
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Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Vietnamese named : Xoài .
Common names : Mango
Scientist name : Mangifera indica L.
Synonyms :
Family : Annacardiaceae . Họ Đào Lộn Hột

Links :

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/X/780/
Xoài – Mangifera indica L., thuộc họ Ðào lộn hột – Anacardiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ lớn, cao 10-20m, có tán rậm. Lá đơn, nguyên, mọc so le, phiến lá hình thuôn mũi mác, nhẵn, thơm. Hoa họp thành chùm kép ở ngọn cành. Hoa nhỏ, màu vàng, có 5 lá đài nhỏ, có lông ở mặt ngoài, 5 cánh hoa có tuyến mật, 5 nhị nhưng chỉ có 1-2 nhị sinh sản. Bầu trên, thường chỉ có một lá noãn chứa 1 noãn. Quả hạch chín màu vàng, thịt vàng, ngọt, thơm, nhân có xơ. Hạt rất to.

Bộ phận dùng: Quả, hạch của quả, lá, vỏ thân – Fructus, Nux, Folium et Cortex Mangiferae Indicae.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng nhiều ở các xứ nhiệt đới. Ở nước ta, Xoài được trồng ở nhiều nơi. Có nhiều thứ khác nhau như Xoài tượng, Xoài cát, Xoài cơm, Xoài thanh ca, v.v.. có thể thu hái các bộ phận của cây quanh năm, dùng tươi hay phơi khô.

Thành phần hóa học: Quả chứa nhiều caroten và vitamin B1, B2 và C. Hạch quả chứa nhiều tinh bột, dầu và tanin. Lá chứa tanin và một hợp nhất flavonoid là mangiferin. Vỏ thân chứa 3% tanin và mangiferin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Quả, vỏ, lá có vị chua, ngọt, tính mát; hạch quả có vị chua, chát, tính bình. Quả có tác dụng thanh nhiệt tiêu trệ, ích vị, chỉ thổ, giải khát, lợi niệu. Hạt quả có tác dụng chỉ khái, kiện vị. Lá có tác dụng chỉ dương, hành khí sơ trệ, khu sa tích, lợi tiểu và có thể kháng nham. Vỏ thân có tác dụng thu liễm, sát trùng. Nhựa từ vỏ cây rỉ ra không mùi, có ví chát, đắng, hơi cay cũng có tác dụng như vỏ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Quả Xoài và hạch quả dùng trị ho, tiêu hóa không bình thường, sán khí. Thịt quả dùng trị bệnh hoại huyết và loạn óc. Hạch quả còn dùng trị giun, kiết lỵ và ỉa chảy. Vỏ quả dùng trị kiết lỵ.

Lá dùng trị các bệnh phần trên đường hô hấp như ho, viêm phế quản mạn tính hay cấp tính, thủy thũng và dùng ngoài trị viêm da, ngứa ngáy ngoài da.

Vỏ thân thường được dùng trị ho, đau sưng họng và đau răng. Nhựa từ vỏ dùng trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy và bệnh ngoài da, cũng dùng trị bạch đới, kinh nguyệt quá nhiều.

Cách dùng: Ta thường trồng Xoài để lấy quả ăn. Vỏ thân dùng chữa đau răng. Lấy 1 miếng vỏ bằng bàn tay, cạo vỏ ngoài rồi thái mỏng. Nếu dùng vỏ tươi thì giã nhỏ, vắt lấy nước, thêm tí muối để ngậm rồi nhổ nước, mỗi ngày 4-5 lần. Nếu dùng vỏ khô thì sắc lấy nước: đổ 2 bát nước đun sôi, giữ nước sôi kỹ trong nửa giờ, gạn lấy nước sắc, thêm vài hạt muối rồi ngậm. Mỗi lần ngậm chừng một chén con. Ngậm trong 10 phút, thỉnh thoảng súc sang hai bên má rồi nhổ đi. Ngậm 3-4 lần trong ngày, liên tiếp vài ba ngày.

Nhựa cây tươi đem ngâm trong nước Chanh dùng trị các thứ ghẻ lở. Hạt phơi khô, tán bột, dùng mỗi lần 1,5g trị giun hoặc uống trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy. Lá thường dùng nấu nước xông trị các bệnh trong họng.

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/CSDLKHCN/modules.php?name=Ne…
**** www.khuyennongtphcm.com/index.php?mnu=4&s=600012&…
**** www.dongthap.gov.vn/wps/portal/huyencaolanh/!ut/p/c0/04_S…

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the common mango or Indian mango – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide.
In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies[citation needed].
Mangos were first cultivated in Southeast Asia

Etymology

The word mango comes from the Portuguese manga, which is probably derived from the Malayalam മാങ്ങ (māṅṅa; pronounced "manga"). The word’s first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as Manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the -o ending in English is unclear.[2]
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes" (especially bell peppers), and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle"

Description
Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[citation needed] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The seed of mango can be hairy or fibrous

The "hedgehog" style is a common way of eating mangoes (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right, not quite fully halving the fruit as the stone is not visible
The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

Cultivation

Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Unripe mangoes on a mango tree
Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[4] and reached East Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[4] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[5] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[4]
Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; More than a third of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone second being China[citation needed].[6][7][8]
Mango is also being grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), which is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows growth of tropical plants and fruit trees.[9] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[10]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed]
Other cultivators include North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia.
Though India is the largest producer of mangoes (Pakistan being the largest exporter[citation needed]), it accounts for less than one percent[citation needed] of the international mango trade, consuming most of its own output.[11]
Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.
A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Potential for contact dermatitis
Mango peel and sap contains urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[12] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed.[13] Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction.[14] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During mango’s primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.

Food

An unripe mango of Ratnagiri (India)
The mango is generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while the flesh of others is firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, or may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, the mango skin may be consumed comfortably, but has potential to cause contact dermatitis (above) of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. In ripe fruits which are commonly eaten fresh, the skin may be thicker and bitter tasting, so is typically not eaten.

Cuisine

Commercially packaged mango powder sold in clear plastic wrapping
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles, or side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A cooling summer drink called panna or panha comes from mangoes.
Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh; however, they can have many other culinary uses. Mango Lassi, a popular drink made throughout South Asia[citation needed], is created by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with yogurt and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular pulp/thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called ‘mangada’.
Mangoes are used in preserves like moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

Native green mangoes from the Philippines

A basket of ripe mangoes from Bangladesh
Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce or with dash of salt. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. Some people also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Nutrients and phytochemicals
Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy272 kJ (65 kcal)
Carbohydrates17.00 g
– Sugars14.8 g
– Dietary fiber1.8 g
Fat0.27 g
Protein0.51 g
Vitamin A equiv.38 μg (4%)
– beta-carotene445 μg (4%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.058 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.057 mg (4%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)0.584 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.160 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.134 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Vitamin C27.7 mg (46%)
Calcium10 mg (1%)
Iron0.13 mg (1%)
Magnesium9 mg (2%)
Phosphorus11 mg (2%)
Potassium156 mg (3%)
Zinc0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 272 kJ (65 kcal) and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals[16] and nutrients. The fruit pulp is high in prebiotic dietary fiber, vitamin C, diverse polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids.[17]
Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compose 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-gram (5.8-oz) serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients, such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[citation needed]
Mango peel contains pigments that may have antioxidant properties,[16][18] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[19] polyphenols[20][21] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,[22] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research.[23][24] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[25] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[26] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[27]
The mango triterpene, lupeol,[28] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[29][30][31] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[32] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[33]
The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[34] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.

Cultural significance

Mango roundabout, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
The mango is the national fruit of India,[36] Pakistan, and the Philippines.[37] The mango tree is the national tree of Bangladesh.[38]
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati.
Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamilnadu, Mango is considered, along with Banana and jack fruit, as the Three royal fruits (Mukkani)
Famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was very fond of mangoes. There are many anecdotes concerning his love for mangoes.

In Australia, where mangoes are considered to be a symbol of summer, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity

………………………………………………………………….. Click on link to read more, please

Bud and flower ‘s close up ( Mangifera indica ) ….Chụp gần hoa và nụ của cây Xoài….
free legal bud blends
Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Vietnamese named : Xoài .
Common names : Mango
Scientist name : Mangifera indica L.
Synonyms :
Family : Annacardiaceae . Họ Đào Lộn Hột

Links :

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/X/780/
Xoài – Mangifera indica L., thuộc họ Ðào lộn hột – Anacardiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ lớn, cao 10-20m, có tán rậm. Lá đơn, nguyên, mọc so le, phiến lá hình thuôn mũi mác, nhẵn, thơm. Hoa họp thành chùm kép ở ngọn cành. Hoa nhỏ, màu vàng, có 5 lá đài nhỏ, có lông ở mặt ngoài, 5 cánh hoa có tuyến mật, 5 nhị nhưng chỉ có 1-2 nhị sinh sản. Bầu trên, thường chỉ có một lá noãn chứa 1 noãn. Quả hạch chín màu vàng, thịt vàng, ngọt, thơm, nhân có xơ. Hạt rất to.

Bộ phận dùng: Quả, hạch của quả, lá, vỏ thân – Fructus, Nux, Folium et Cortex Mangiferae Indicae.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng nhiều ở các xứ nhiệt đới. Ở nước ta, Xoài được trồng ở nhiều nơi. Có nhiều thứ khác nhau như Xoài tượng, Xoài cát, Xoài cơm, Xoài thanh ca, v.v.. có thể thu hái các bộ phận của cây quanh năm, dùng tươi hay phơi khô.

Thành phần hóa học: Quả chứa nhiều caroten và vitamin B1, B2 và C. Hạch quả chứa nhiều tinh bột, dầu và tanin. Lá chứa tanin và một hợp nhất flavonoid là mangiferin. Vỏ thân chứa 3% tanin và mangiferin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Quả, vỏ, lá có vị chua, ngọt, tính mát; hạch quả có vị chua, chát, tính bình. Quả có tác dụng thanh nhiệt tiêu trệ, ích vị, chỉ thổ, giải khát, lợi niệu. Hạt quả có tác dụng chỉ khái, kiện vị. Lá có tác dụng chỉ dương, hành khí sơ trệ, khu sa tích, lợi tiểu và có thể kháng nham. Vỏ thân có tác dụng thu liễm, sát trùng. Nhựa từ vỏ cây rỉ ra không mùi, có ví chát, đắng, hơi cay cũng có tác dụng như vỏ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Quả Xoài và hạch quả dùng trị ho, tiêu hóa không bình thường, sán khí. Thịt quả dùng trị bệnh hoại huyết và loạn óc. Hạch quả còn dùng trị giun, kiết lỵ và ỉa chảy. Vỏ quả dùng trị kiết lỵ.

Lá dùng trị các bệnh phần trên đường hô hấp như ho, viêm phế quản mạn tính hay cấp tính, thủy thũng và dùng ngoài trị viêm da, ngứa ngáy ngoài da.

Vỏ thân thường được dùng trị ho, đau sưng họng và đau răng. Nhựa từ vỏ dùng trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy và bệnh ngoài da, cũng dùng trị bạch đới, kinh nguyệt quá nhiều.

Cách dùng: Ta thường trồng Xoài để lấy quả ăn. Vỏ thân dùng chữa đau răng. Lấy 1 miếng vỏ bằng bàn tay, cạo vỏ ngoài rồi thái mỏng. Nếu dùng vỏ tươi thì giã nhỏ, vắt lấy nước, thêm tí muối để ngậm rồi nhổ nước, mỗi ngày 4-5 lần. Nếu dùng vỏ khô thì sắc lấy nước: đổ 2 bát nước đun sôi, giữ nước sôi kỹ trong nửa giờ, gạn lấy nước sắc, thêm vài hạt muối rồi ngậm. Mỗi lần ngậm chừng một chén con. Ngậm trong 10 phút, thỉnh thoảng súc sang hai bên má rồi nhổ đi. Ngậm 3-4 lần trong ngày, liên tiếp vài ba ngày.

Nhựa cây tươi đem ngâm trong nước Chanh dùng trị các thứ ghẻ lở. Hạt phơi khô, tán bột, dùng mỗi lần 1,5g trị giun hoặc uống trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy. Lá thường dùng nấu nước xông trị các bệnh trong họng.

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/CSDLKHCN/modules.php?name=Ne…
**** www.khuyennongtphcm.com/index.php?mnu=4&s=600012&…
**** www.dongthap.gov.vn/wps/portal/huyencaolanh/!ut/p/c0/04_S…

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the common mango or Indian mango – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide.
In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies[citation needed].
Mangos were first cultivated in Southeast Asia

Etymology

The word mango comes from the Portuguese manga, which is probably derived from the Malayalam മാങ്ങ (māṅṅa; pronounced "manga"). The word’s first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as Manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the -o ending in English is unclear.[2]
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes" (especially bell peppers), and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle"

Description
Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[citation needed] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The seed of mango can be hairy or fibrous

The "hedgehog" style is a common way of eating mangoes (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right, not quite fully halving the fruit as the stone is not visible
The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

Cultivation

Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Unripe mangoes on a mango tree
Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[4] and reached East Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[4] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[5] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[4]
Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; More than a third of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone second being China[citation needed].[6][7][8]
Mango is also being grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), which is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows growth of tropical plants and fruit trees.[9] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[10]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed]
Other cultivators include North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia.
Though India is the largest producer of mangoes (Pakistan being the largest exporter[citation needed]), it accounts for less than one percent[citation needed] of the international mango trade, consuming most of its own output.[11]
Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.
A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Potential for contact dermatitis
Mango peel and sap contains urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[12] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed.[13] Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction.[14] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During mango’s primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.

Food

An unripe mango of Ratnagiri (India)
The mango is generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while the flesh of others is firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, or may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, the mango skin may be consumed comfortably, but has potential to cause contact dermatitis (above) of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. In ripe fruits which are commonly eaten fresh, the skin may be thicker and bitter tasting, so is typically not eaten.

Cuisine

Commercially packaged mango powder sold in clear plastic wrapping
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles, or side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A cooling summer drink called panna or panha comes from mangoes.
Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh; however, they can have many other culinary uses. Mango Lassi, a popular drink made throughout South Asia[citation needed], is created by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with yogurt and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular pulp/thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called ‘mangada’.
Mangoes are used in preserves like moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

Native green mangoes from the Philippines

A basket of ripe mangoes from Bangladesh
Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce or with dash of salt. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. Some people also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Nutrients and phytochemicals
Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy272 kJ (65 kcal)
Carbohydrates17.00 g
– Sugars14.8 g
– Dietary fiber1.8 g
Fat0.27 g
Protein0.51 g
Vitamin A equiv.38 μg (4%)
– beta-carotene445 μg (4%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.058 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.057 mg (4%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)0.584 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.160 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.134 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Vitamin C27.7 mg (46%)
Calcium10 mg (1%)
Iron0.13 mg (1%)
Magnesium9 mg (2%)
Phosphorus11 mg (2%)
Potassium156 mg (3%)
Zinc0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 272 kJ (65 kcal) and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals[16] and nutrients. The fruit pulp is high in prebiotic dietary fiber, vitamin C, diverse polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids.[17]
Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compose 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-gram (5.8-oz) serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients, such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[citation needed]
Mango peel contains pigments that may have antioxidant properties,[16][18] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[19] polyphenols[20][21] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,[22] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research.[23][24] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[25] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[26] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[27]
The mango triterpene, lupeol,[28] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[29][30][31] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[32] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[33]
The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[34] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.

Cultural significance

Mango roundabout, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
The mango is the national fruit of India,[36] Pakistan, and the Philippines.[37] The mango tree is the national tree of Bangladesh.[38]
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati.
Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamilnadu, Mango is considered, along with Banana and jack fruit, as the Three royal fruits (Mukkani)
Famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was very fond of mangoes. There are many anecdotes concerning his love for mangoes.

In Australia, where mangoes are considered to be a symbol of summer, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity

………………………………………………………………….. Click on link to read more, please

Mango ‘s buds and flowers close up ….Chụp gần nụ và hoa của cây Xoài …
free legal bud blends
Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Vietnamese named : Xoài .
Common names : Mango
Scientist name : Mangifera indica L.
Synonyms :
Family : Annacardiaceae . Họ Đào Lộn Hột

Links :

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/X/780/
Xoài – Mangifera indica L., thuộc họ Ðào lộn hột – Anacardiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ lớn, cao 10-20m, có tán rậm. Lá đơn, nguyên, mọc so le, phiến lá hình thuôn mũi mác, nhẵn, thơm. Hoa họp thành chùm kép ở ngọn cành. Hoa nhỏ, màu vàng, có 5 lá đài nhỏ, có lông ở mặt ngoài, 5 cánh hoa có tuyến mật, 5 nhị nhưng chỉ có 1-2 nhị sinh sản. Bầu trên, thường chỉ có một lá noãn chứa 1 noãn. Quả hạch chín màu vàng, thịt vàng, ngọt, thơm, nhân có xơ. Hạt rất to.

Bộ phận dùng: Quả, hạch của quả, lá, vỏ thân – Fructus, Nux, Folium et Cortex Mangiferae Indicae.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng nhiều ở các xứ nhiệt đới. Ở nước ta, Xoài được trồng ở nhiều nơi. Có nhiều thứ khác nhau như Xoài tượng, Xoài cát, Xoài cơm, Xoài thanh ca, v.v.. có thể thu hái các bộ phận của cây quanh năm, dùng tươi hay phơi khô.

Thành phần hóa học: Quả chứa nhiều caroten và vitamin B1, B2 và C. Hạch quả chứa nhiều tinh bột, dầu và tanin. Lá chứa tanin và một hợp nhất flavonoid là mangiferin. Vỏ thân chứa 3% tanin và mangiferin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Quả, vỏ, lá có vị chua, ngọt, tính mát; hạch quả có vị chua, chát, tính bình. Quả có tác dụng thanh nhiệt tiêu trệ, ích vị, chỉ thổ, giải khát, lợi niệu. Hạt quả có tác dụng chỉ khái, kiện vị. Lá có tác dụng chỉ dương, hành khí sơ trệ, khu sa tích, lợi tiểu và có thể kháng nham. Vỏ thân có tác dụng thu liễm, sát trùng. Nhựa từ vỏ cây rỉ ra không mùi, có ví chát, đắng, hơi cay cũng có tác dụng như vỏ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Quả Xoài và hạch quả dùng trị ho, tiêu hóa không bình thường, sán khí. Thịt quả dùng trị bệnh hoại huyết và loạn óc. Hạch quả còn dùng trị giun, kiết lỵ và ỉa chảy. Vỏ quả dùng trị kiết lỵ.

Lá dùng trị các bệnh phần trên đường hô hấp như ho, viêm phế quản mạn tính hay cấp tính, thủy thũng và dùng ngoài trị viêm da, ngứa ngáy ngoài da.

Vỏ thân thường được dùng trị ho, đau sưng họng và đau răng. Nhựa từ vỏ dùng trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy và bệnh ngoài da, cũng dùng trị bạch đới, kinh nguyệt quá nhiều.

Cách dùng: Ta thường trồng Xoài để lấy quả ăn. Vỏ thân dùng chữa đau răng. Lấy 1 miếng vỏ bằng bàn tay, cạo vỏ ngoài rồi thái mỏng. Nếu dùng vỏ tươi thì giã nhỏ, vắt lấy nước, thêm tí muối để ngậm rồi nhổ nước, mỗi ngày 4-5 lần. Nếu dùng vỏ khô thì sắc lấy nước: đổ 2 bát nước đun sôi, giữ nước sôi kỹ trong nửa giờ, gạn lấy nước sắc, thêm vài hạt muối rồi ngậm. Mỗi lần ngậm chừng một chén con. Ngậm trong 10 phút, thỉnh thoảng súc sang hai bên má rồi nhổ đi. Ngậm 3-4 lần trong ngày, liên tiếp vài ba ngày.

Nhựa cây tươi đem ngâm trong nước Chanh dùng trị các thứ ghẻ lở. Hạt phơi khô, tán bột, dùng mỗi lần 1,5g trị giun hoặc uống trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy. Lá thường dùng nấu nước xông trị các bệnh trong họng.

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/CSDLKHCN/modules.php?name=Ne…
**** www.khuyennongtphcm.com/index.php?mnu=4&s=600012&…
**** www.dongthap.gov.vn/wps/portal/huyencaolanh/!ut/p/c0/04_S…

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the common mango or Indian mango – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide.
In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies[citation needed].
Mangos were first cultivated in Southeast Asia

Etymology

The word mango comes from the Portuguese manga, which is probably derived from the Malayalam മാങ്ങ (māṅṅa; pronounced "manga"). The word’s first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as Manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the -o ending in English is unclear.[2]
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes" (especially bell peppers), and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle"

Description
Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[citation needed] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The seed of mango can be hairy or fibrous

The "hedgehog" style is a common way of eating mangoes (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right, not quite fully halving the fruit as the stone is not visible
The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

Cultivation

Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Unripe mangoes on a mango tree
Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[4] and reached East Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[4] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[5] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[4]
Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; More than a third of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone second being China[citation needed].[6][7][8]
Mango is also being grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), which is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows growth of tropical plants and fruit trees.[9] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[10]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed]
Other cultivators include North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia.
Though India is the largest producer of mangoes (Pakistan being the largest exporter[citation needed]), it accounts for less than one percent[citation needed] of the international mango trade, consuming most of its own output.[11]
Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.
A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Potential for contact dermatitis
Mango peel and sap contains urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[12] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed.[13] Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction.[14] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During mango’s primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.

Food

An unripe mango of Ratnagiri (India)
The mango is generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while the flesh of others is firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, or may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, the mango skin may be consumed comfortably, but has potential to cause contact dermatitis (above) of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. In ripe fruits which are commonly eaten fresh, the skin may be thicker and bitter tasting, so is typically not eaten.

Cuisine

Commercially packaged mango powder sold in clear plastic wrapping
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles, or side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A cooling summer drink called panna or panha comes from mangoes.
Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh; however, they can have many other culinary uses. Mango Lassi, a popular drink made throughout South Asia[citation needed], is created by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with yogurt and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular pulp/thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called ‘mangada’.
Mangoes are used in preserves like moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

Native green mangoes from the Philippines

A basket of ripe mangoes from Bangladesh
Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce or with dash of salt. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. Some people also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Nutrients and phytochemicals
Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy272 kJ (65 kcal)
Carbohydrates17.00 g
– Sugars14.8 g
– Dietary fiber1.8 g
Fat0.27 g
Protein0.51 g
Vitamin A equiv.38 μg (4%)
– beta-carotene445 μg (4%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.058 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.057 mg (4%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)0.584 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.160 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.134 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Vitamin C27.7 mg (46%)
Calcium10 mg (1%)
Iron0.13 mg (1%)
Magnesium9 mg (2%)
Phosphorus11 mg (2%)
Potassium156 mg (3%)
Zinc0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 272 kJ (65 kcal) and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals[16] and nutrients. The fruit pulp is high in prebiotic dietary fiber, vitamin C, diverse polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids.[17]
Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compose 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-gram (5.8-oz) serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients, such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[citation needed]
Mango peel contains pigments that may have antioxidant properties,[16][18] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[19] polyphenols[20][21] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,[22] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research.[23][24] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[25] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[26] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[27]
The mango triterpene, lupeol,[28] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[29][30][31] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[32] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[33]
The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[34] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.

Cultural significance

Mango roundabout, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
The mango is the national fruit of India,[36] Pakistan, and the Philippines.[37] The mango tree is the national tree of Bangladesh.[38]
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati.
Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamilnadu, Mango is considered, along with Banana and jack fruit, as the Three royal fruits (Mukkani)
Famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was very fond of mangoes. There are many anecdotes concerning his love for mangoes.

In Australia, where mangoes are considered to be a symbol of summer, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity

………………………………………………………………….. Click on link to read more, please

Check out these legal bud ingredients images:

Close up of Mango ‘s buds and flowers ….Chụp gần nụ và hoa của cây Xoài…
legal bud ingredients
Image by Vietnam Plants & America plants
Vietnamese named : Xoài .
Common names : Mango
Scientist name : Mangifera indica L.
Synonyms :
Family : Annacardiaceae . Họ Đào Lộn Hột

Links :

**** caythuoc.chothuoc24h.com/cay-thuoc/X/780/
Xoài – Mangifera indica L., thuộc họ Ðào lộn hột – Anacardiaceae.

Mô tả: Cây gỗ lớn, cao 10-20m, có tán rậm. Lá đơn, nguyên, mọc so le, phiến lá hình thuôn mũi mác, nhẵn, thơm. Hoa họp thành chùm kép ở ngọn cành. Hoa nhỏ, màu vàng, có 5 lá đài nhỏ, có lông ở mặt ngoài, 5 cánh hoa có tuyến mật, 5 nhị nhưng chỉ có 1-2 nhị sinh sản. Bầu trên, thường chỉ có một lá noãn chứa 1 noãn. Quả hạch chín màu vàng, thịt vàng, ngọt, thơm, nhân có xơ. Hạt rất to.

Bộ phận dùng: Quả, hạch của quả, lá, vỏ thân – Fructus, Nux, Folium et Cortex Mangiferae Indicae.

Nơi sống và thu hái: Gốc ở Ấn Độ, được trồng nhiều ở các xứ nhiệt đới. Ở nước ta, Xoài được trồng ở nhiều nơi. Có nhiều thứ khác nhau như Xoài tượng, Xoài cát, Xoài cơm, Xoài thanh ca, v.v.. có thể thu hái các bộ phận của cây quanh năm, dùng tươi hay phơi khô.

Thành phần hóa học: Quả chứa nhiều caroten và vitamin B1, B2 và C. Hạch quả chứa nhiều tinh bột, dầu và tanin. Lá chứa tanin và một hợp nhất flavonoid là mangiferin. Vỏ thân chứa 3% tanin và mangiferin.

Tính vị, tác dụng: Quả, vỏ, lá có vị chua, ngọt, tính mát; hạch quả có vị chua, chát, tính bình. Quả có tác dụng thanh nhiệt tiêu trệ, ích vị, chỉ thổ, giải khát, lợi niệu. Hạt quả có tác dụng chỉ khái, kiện vị. Lá có tác dụng chỉ dương, hành khí sơ trệ, khu sa tích, lợi tiểu và có thể kháng nham. Vỏ thân có tác dụng thu liễm, sát trùng. Nhựa từ vỏ cây rỉ ra không mùi, có ví chát, đắng, hơi cay cũng có tác dụng như vỏ.

Công dụng, chỉ định và phối hợp: Quả Xoài và hạch quả dùng trị ho, tiêu hóa không bình thường, sán khí. Thịt quả dùng trị bệnh hoại huyết và loạn óc. Hạch quả còn dùng trị giun, kiết lỵ và ỉa chảy. Vỏ quả dùng trị kiết lỵ.

Lá dùng trị các bệnh phần trên đường hô hấp như ho, viêm phế quản mạn tính hay cấp tính, thủy thũng và dùng ngoài trị viêm da, ngứa ngáy ngoài da.

Vỏ thân thường được dùng trị ho, đau sưng họng và đau răng. Nhựa từ vỏ dùng trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy và bệnh ngoài da, cũng dùng trị bạch đới, kinh nguyệt quá nhiều.

Cách dùng: Ta thường trồng Xoài để lấy quả ăn. Vỏ thân dùng chữa đau răng. Lấy 1 miếng vỏ bằng bàn tay, cạo vỏ ngoài rồi thái mỏng. Nếu dùng vỏ tươi thì giã nhỏ, vắt lấy nước, thêm tí muối để ngậm rồi nhổ nước, mỗi ngày 4-5 lần. Nếu dùng vỏ khô thì sắc lấy nước: đổ 2 bát nước đun sôi, giữ nước sôi kỹ trong nửa giờ, gạn lấy nước sắc, thêm vài hạt muối rồi ngậm. Mỗi lần ngậm chừng một chén con. Ngậm trong 10 phút, thỉnh thoảng súc sang hai bên má rồi nhổ đi. Ngậm 3-4 lần trong ngày, liên tiếp vài ba ngày.

Nhựa cây tươi đem ngâm trong nước Chanh dùng trị các thứ ghẻ lở. Hạt phơi khô, tán bột, dùng mỗi lần 1,5g trị giun hoặc uống trị kiết lỵ, ỉa chảy. Lá thường dùng nấu nước xông trị các bệnh trong họng.

**** www.khoahocchonhanong.com.vn/CSDLKHCN/modules.php?name=Ne…
**** www.khuyennongtphcm.com/index.php?mnu=4&s=600012&…
**** www.dongthap.gov.vn/wps/portal/huyencaolanh/!ut/p/c0/04_S…

______________________________________________________________

**** en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango
The mango is a fleshy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the common mango or Indian mango – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions, and its fruit is distributed essentially worldwide.
In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations and religious ceremonies[citation needed].
Mangos were first cultivated in Southeast Asia

Etymology

The word mango comes from the Portuguese manga, which is probably derived from the Malayalam മാങ്ങ (māṅṅa; pronounced "manga"). The word’s first recorded attestation in a European language was a text by Ludovico di Varthema in Italian in 1510, as Manga; the first recorded occurrences in languages such as French and post-classical Latin appear to be translations from this Italian text. The origin of the -o ending in English is unclear.[2]
When mangoes were first imported to the American colonies in the 17th century, they had to be pickled due to lack of refrigeration. Other fruits were also pickled and came to be called "mangoes" (especially bell peppers), and by the 18th century, the word "mango" became a verb meaning "to pickle"

Description
Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow up to 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived, as some specimens still fruit after 300 years.[citation needed] In deep soil, the taproot descends to a depth of 6 m (20 ft) with profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots; the tree also sends down many anchor roots, which penetrate several feet of soil. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, simple, 15–35 cm (5.9–14 in) long and 6–16 cm (2.4–6.3 in) broad; when the leaves are young they are orange-pink, rapidly changing to a dark glossy red, then dark green as they mature. The flowers are produced in terminal panicles 10–40 cm (3.9–16 in) long; each flower is small and white with five petals 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long, with a mild sweet odor suggestive of lily of the valley. The fruit takes three to six months to ripen.

The seed of mango can be hairy or fibrous

The "hedgehog" style is a common way of eating mangoes (left). A cross section of a mango can be seen on the right, not quite fully halving the fruit as the stone is not visible
The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled fruit gives off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, 4–7 mm (0.16–0.28 in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

Cultivation

Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Unripe mangoes on a mango tree
Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[4] and reached East Asia between the 5th and 4th centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[4] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[5] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[4]
Mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; More than a third of the world’s mangoes are cultivated in India alone second being China[citation needed].[6][7][8]
Mango is also being grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), which is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows growth of tropical plants and fruit trees.[9] Many of the 1,000+ mango cultivars are easily cultivated using grafted saplings, ranging from the "turpentine mango" (named for its strong taste of turpentine[10]) to the huevos de toro.[citation needed]
Other cultivators include North, South and Central America, the Caribbean, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia.
Though India is the largest producer of mangoes (Pakistan being the largest exporter[citation needed]), it accounts for less than one percent[citation needed] of the international mango trade, consuming most of its own output.[11]
Dwarf or semi-dwarf varieties serve as ornamental plants and can be grown in containers.
A wide variety of diseases can afflict mangoes; see List of mango diseases.

Potential for contact dermatitis
Mango peel and sap contains urushiol, the chemical in poison ivy and poison sumac that can cause urushiol-induced contact dermatitis in susceptible people.[12] Cross-reactions between mango contact allergens and urushiol have been observed.[13] Those with a history of poison ivy or poison oak contact dermatitis may be most at risk for such an allergic reaction.[14] Urushiol is also present in mango leaves and stems. During mango’s primary ripening season, it is the most common source of plant dermatitis in Hawaii.

Food

An unripe mango of Ratnagiri (India)
The mango is generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while the flesh of others is firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado, or may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, the mango skin may be consumed comfortably, but has potential to cause contact dermatitis (above) of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. In ripe fruits which are commonly eaten fresh, the skin may be thicker and bitter tasting, so is typically not eaten.

Cuisine

Commercially packaged mango powder sold in clear plastic wrapping
Mangoes are widely used in cuisine. Sour, unripe mangoes are used in chutneys, athanu, pickles, or side dishes, or may be eaten raw with salt, chili, or soy sauce. A cooling summer drink called panna or panha comes from mangoes.
Ripe mangoes are typically eaten fresh; however, they can have many other culinary uses. Mango Lassi, a popular drink made throughout South Asia[citation needed], is created by mixing ripe mangoes or mango pulp with yogurt and sugar. Ripe mangoes are also used to make curries. Aamras is a popular pulp/thick juice made of mangoes with sugar or milk, and is consumed with bread, rice or pooris. The pulp from ripe mangoes is also used to make jam called ‘mangada’.
Mangoes are used in preserves like moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products like muesli and oat granola.

Native green mangoes from the Philippines

A basket of ripe mangoes from Bangladesh
Unripe mango may be eaten with bagoong (especially in the Philippines), fish sauce or with dash of salt. Dried strips of sweet, ripe mango (sometimes combined with seedless tamarind to form mangorind) are also popular. Mangoes may be used to make juices, mango nectar, and as a flavoring and major ingredient in ice cream and sorbetes.
Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste. It is popular on a stick dipped in hot chili powder and salt or also as a main ingredient in fresh fruit combinations. In Central America, mango is either eaten green mixed with salt, vinegar, black pepper and hot sauce, or ripe in various forms. Toasted and ground pumpkin seed (called pepita) with lime and salt are the norm when eating green mangoes. Some people also add soy sauce or chili sauce.
Pieces of mango can be mashed and used as a topping on ice cream or blended with milk and ice as milkshakes. Sweet glutinous rice is flavored with coconut, then served with sliced mango as a dessert. In other parts of Southeast Asia, mangoes are pickled with fish sauce and rice vinegar. Green mangoes can be used in mango salad with fish sauce and dried shrimp. Mango with condensed milk may be used as a topping for shaved ice.

Nutrients and phytochemicals
Mango, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy272 kJ (65 kcal)
Carbohydrates17.00 g
– Sugars14.8 g
– Dietary fiber1.8 g
Fat0.27 g
Protein0.51 g
Vitamin A equiv.38 μg (4%)
– beta-carotene445 μg (4%)
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.058 mg (4%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)0.057 mg (4%)
Niacin (Vit. B3)0.584 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.160 mg (3%)
Vitamin B60.134 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9)14 μg (4%)
Vitamin C27.7 mg (46%)
Calcium10 mg (1%)
Iron0.13 mg (1%)
Magnesium9 mg (2%)
Phosphorus11 mg (2%)
Potassium156 mg (3%)
Zinc0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 272 kJ (65 kcal) and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g). Mango is rich in a variety of phytochemicals[16] and nutrients. The fruit pulp is high in prebiotic dietary fiber, vitamin C, diverse polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids.[17]
Mango contains essential vitamins and dietary minerals. The antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compose 25%, 76% and 9% of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) in a 165-gram (5.8-oz) serving. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, 11% DRI), vitamin K (9% DRI), other B vitamins and essential nutrients, such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are at good levels. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants – carotenoids and polyphenols – and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids.[citation needed]
Mango peel contains pigments that may have antioxidant properties,[16][18] including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein and alpha-carotene,[19] polyphenols[20][21] such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin,[22] any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research.[23][24] Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species.[25] Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species.[26] Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.[27]
The mango triterpene, lupeol,[28] is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[29][30][31] An extract of mango branch bark called Vimang, isolated by Cuban scientists, contains numerous polyphenols with antioxidant properties in vitro[32] and on blood parameters of elderly humans.[33]
The pigment euxanthin, known as Indian yellow, is often thought to be produced from the urine of cattle fed mango leaves; the practice is described as having been outlawed in 1908 due to malnutrition of the cows and possible urushiol poisoning.[34] This supposed origin of euxanthin appears to rely on a single, anecdotal source, and Indian legal records do not outlaw such a practice.

Cultural significance

Mango roundabout, Rajshahi, Bangladesh
The mango is the national fruit of India,[36] Pakistan, and the Philippines.[37] The mango tree is the national tree of Bangladesh.[38]
In Hinduism, the perfectly ripe mango is often held by Lord Ganesha as a symbol of attainment, regarding the devotees potential perfection. Mango blossoms are also used in the worship of the goddess Saraswati.
Mango leaves are used to decorate archways and doors in Indian houses and during weddings and celebrations like Ganesh Chaturthi. Mango motifs and paisleys are widely used in different Indian embroidery styles, and are found in Kashmiri shawls, Kanchipuram silk sarees, etc. Paisleys are also common to Iranian art, because of its pre-Islamic Zoroastrian past.
In Tamilnadu, Mango is considered, along with Banana and jack fruit, as the Three royal fruits (Mukkani)
Famous Urdu poet Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was very fond of mangoes. There are many anecdotes concerning his love for mangoes.

In Australia, where mangoes are considered to be a symbol of summer, the first tray of mangoes of the season is traditionally sold at an auction for charity

………………………………………………………………….. Click on link to read more, please

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Compact flasks for your drinks

Article by Kinjal Shah

Many times it so happens that your friend brings you a large bottle of vodka or whiskey to be enjoyed by you at your comfort and convenience at home. For example, when my college friend was returning home from Singapore he bought for me a bottle of Black Label as it was available for an amazing price at a duty free shop. Many people make purchases of electronic items and even cigarette cartons from duty free shops at the airport. I was really delighted when he came to my house and put the bottle in my hands. Since he was going to stay overnight at my place we opened the bottle and had the drink with lime and soda and were talking about our good old days.

I used to travel frequently for my business trips and when the next call came from my boss to go to Australia for an exhibition I had to pack my bags pretty quickly as it was a very short notice. However I wanted to take the whiskey as well along with me so that I could drink it at night. The bottle that my friend gave me was large and hence it would be foolish to carry such a large bottle. My wife came upon a very good idea of buying a stylish flask and pouring the contents of the large bottle in it. So I decided to just visit an online store and buy a flask for myself since I did not have much time to check out a flask at the department store. There was a lot of packing still left and I had to hurry.

My search on Google took me to a site called Legal Buds. There were some great flasks with excellent designs. All the designs were so good that I was finding it difficult to choose a design. Finally I settled for the eagle design. The flask was extremely lightweight and it could easily fit in my pocket. That meant I could take it anywhere I wanted. Since the sites office was in the same city as mine, the flask was delivered to my place within two days. The flask looked very smart and soon I poured the contents of the large bottle in the flask. The stainless steel flask had an air tight top through which no liquid can leak.

The flasks available at Legal Buds are top quality products and they will easily last for a long time as they are made from high quality stainless steel.

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The Foundation: A Great American Secret; How Private Wealth is Changing the World (January 2007) …
legal bud forms
Image by marsmet471
Foundations are a peculiarly American institution. They have been the dynamo of social change since their invention at the beginning of the last century.

Yet they are cloaked in secrecy— their decision-making and operations are inscrutable to the point of obscurity-leaving them substantially unaccountable to anyone. Joel Fleishman has been in and around foundations for almost half a century…running them, sitting on their boards, and seeking grants from them.

And in this groundbreaking book he explains the history of foundations, tells the stories of the most successful foundation initiatives—and of those that have failed—and explains why it matters. The baby boomer generation is going to participate in the largest transfer of wealth in history when it passes on its assets to its successor generation.

The third sector is about to become more powerful than ever. This book shows how foundations can provide a vital spur to the engine of the American, and the world’s, economy—if they are properly established and run.

Publication Date: January 9, 2007

………***** All images are copyrighted by their respective authors ……..
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……item 1)…. Amazon.com … www.amazon.com

The Foundation: A Great American Secret; How Private Wealth is Changing the World [Hardcover]
Joel L. Fleishman (Author)

www.amazon.com/The-Foundation-American-Private-Changing/d…

Editorial Reviews

From Publishers Weekly

In his first book, law professor and philanthropist Fleishman has created a thoughtful, engrossing, comprehensive guide to the origins, initiatives, successes and failures among the largely unsung 68,000 private foundations in America, which together grant over 32.2 billion tax-exempt dollars per year.

Tracing the history of this distinctly American institution, Fleishman considers the philanthropy of such financial titans as Andrew Carnegie, George Soros, Warren Buffett, Michael Milken and Bill Gates. Fleishman’s view of the foundation is distinctly favorable: foundations serve a vital social function by providing seed funding to innovative initiatives, having led to such benefits as the 911 emergency response system, the development of the Pap smear, the alleviation of poverty in Bangladesh and the establishment of Johns Hopkins and Carnegie Mellon Universities.

Fleishman doe not hestitate, however, to criticize foundations for arrogance, poor planning, unresponsiveness, waste and irresponsibility, using 12 case studies-Rockefeller’s Population Council and the Children’s Television Workshop among them-to set the stage for "Some Not So Modest Proposals," most of which involve increasing transparency and accountability. Fleishman’s efforts prove an illuminating guide to a little-examined aspect of the American tradition.

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Review
"Any budding philanthropist who aspires to make a better world…should read Joel Fleishman’s wise book." — The Economist, January 27, 2007

"In `The Foundation’…Joel L. Fleishman penetrates this opaque culture." — Bloomberg.com

"Passionately and persuasively, Fleishman makes the case for greater accountability." — Baltimore Sun, January 7, 2007

"Satloff lifts a veil on the Holocaust in North Africa." — Toronto Globe and Mail, January 6, 2007

"This book has an important role to play by educating the public and encouraging foundations to become more accountable" — San Francisco Chronicle, January 7, 2007

"a thoughtful, scholarly, complete discussion… Must-read for staff and board members of non-profits and for anyone running for public office." — Fayetteville Observer, May 13, 2007

"a warm, loving tribute to the large foundations, their donors, and their chief executives." — The Nonprofit Quarterly, Spring 2007

"he has been engaged in a lifelong `lover’s quarrel’ with foundations. His book is a form of tough love." — The Wall Street Journal, January 11, 2007

More About the Author
› Visit Amazon’s Joel L. Fleishman Page

Biography

Joel L. Fleishman is professor of law and public policy at Duke University and the author of The Foundation. He has served as president of the Atlantic Philanthropic Service Company, the U.S. program staff of Atlantic Philanthropies.
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Most Helpful Customer Reviews

30 of 31 people found the following review helpful

*******Deserves serious reading from people who want to make a difference. February 5, 2007
By D. Stuart
Format:Hardcover

Joel Fleishman’s book lays an excellent bedrock of history underneath its discussion of philanthropy as a great element of American tradition. We live in days of some staggering examples – from Warren Buffet’s living bequest of billions, to the fine work of Bill and Melinda Gates – and many others. But rather than see this as some product of the new millennium – Fleishman shows how the new avatars of corporate generosity are following a fine tradition. More than this, the author shows that certain gifting strategies have been leveraged for huge social benefit. For those who are thinking – at whatever scale – of giving to support a cause, this book sets out the strategies that have produced most benefit. This is an excellent, thoughtful piece of work on a topic that currently has wide currency. Well worth reading.
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13 of 14 people found the following review helpful

******Examining a Big but Little Known Area March 8, 2007
By John Matlock
Format:Hardcover

Foundations are a subset of Non-Profit organizations that have become surprisingly big busines in the United States. Somewhere around 1/7th of the business in the country is conducted by these organizations. Somewhere around 1/9th of the workforce is employed by one. They have become an integral part of the American economy.

In this book Mr. Fleishman looks at Foundations (a number of which he has been associated as employee, trustee or some other capacity). He examines what makes a foundation successful, and how some have failed. He offers insight and advice on how to make a foundation more successful, and at the same time how foundations should have an obligation to become more accountable since they received special tax considerations from the Government. He suggests that this accountability should be done by the foundations voluntarily. However, Mr. Fleishman is an attorney and believes that if voluntary response is not forthcoming then new legal requirements should be placed upon them to require more openness.
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Hillary Clinton (Credit: Reuters)

Hillary Clinton (Credit: Reuters)
It's not too late for her to nip it in the bud, and if she doesn't President Obama can still put a stop to it, as well. But right now, it threatens to tarnish her legacy. Here's how the story goes: The TransCanada corporation wants to build an oil …
Read more on Salon

Officials are satisfied Henderson stadium deal won't hurt taxpayers
"The reality is, people are losing their homes, they're out of work and really struggling and so we're crossing the line on how much help government provides. I'm not opposed to offering incentives, but at what cost?" The Triple-A baseball team Reno …
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My legal 3 plant Medical Grow using a 3×5 Growlab Tent, 2-600W Xtrasun ballasts, Radient Hoods, Drip Bucket System, General Hydro Nutes and a 6″ Can Fan inline ducted to a Can 66 Carbon Filter in the attic. These are 2 Nirvana Papaya and 1 Nirvana Bubbelicious 9 weeks into flower and I am flushing now for harvest in 10 days. This is my 5th grow and love being legal!!!!! Video was shot and edited in less 5 minutes on an iPhone 4

tokin daily: getting to know the ssv

tokin daily: getting to know the ssv

we are up close here today focusing on how the silver surfer vaporizer works. i also have an update on how the cannabliss granola bar turned out that i ate yesterday.

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Medical marijuana prices plunge in California
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Beer battle between wholesalers, brewers
Lindsay Peel stocks up for an upcoming party with a case of Bud Light at Randall's Wines & Spirits on Thursday, May 3, 2012, in St. Louis. Photo by Laurie Skrivan, lskrivan@post-dispatch.com There's a rumble brewing over how you get your beer.
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California's marijuana industry takes a hit
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Exotic herb smoking is legal in the US

Article by headshopsmoke

Smokers of pot and tobacco are increasingly looking for safe alternatives to kick their habit. A new generation smoking group has also emerged in the last few years and they are not averse to experimenting with new ideas and stuff. Herbal Smoke is made from high grade smoking blends. Exotic herbs and botanicals are sourced from the world over and sold to smoking buffs online. The satisfaction is far greater than conventional smoking products as each herb has a distinct flavor and aroma.

Smoking herbs is perfectly legal and not considered an illegal drug in the US. People living in the fast lane smoke pot to relax for a few hours at night. But, the after effects can lead to nervousness, paranoia and also cloud coordinated thinking. Herbs are socially acceptable and can be smoked from a pipe, a hookah, rolled like a cigarette or inhaled as atomized vapor. It helps boost moods and provide an herbal and legal high.

The wide array of Herbal Incense embedded in the products is quickly breaking new grounds. While some are purely exhilarating and out of this world, others can ensure enlightenment by transporting the smoker to a spiritual high. Even though they are as strong as marijuana, they do not bring harmful effects after the smoking session. Exotic herbs can be smoked with friends and used for unwinding after a hard day or for going on a mental high.

Smokers get to taste and feel the real thing, but herbs do not contain any THC. They are far better than nicotine or marijuana and for the last 40 years, tobacco smokers have used them as an alternative to kick the butt. Herbal Potpourri Smoke is socially acceptable and is not offered as an alternative to drugs. They can stand on their own in terms of aroma and offers a great smoking experience.

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Smokers of pot and tobacco are increasingly looking for safe alternatives to kick their habit. A new generation smoking group has also emerged in the last few years and they are not averse to experimenting with new ideas and stuff. Herbal Smoke is made from high grade smoking blends. Exotic herbs and botanicals are sourced from the world over and sold to smoking buffs online. The satisfaction is far greater than conventional smoking products as each herb has a distinct flavor and aroma.

Smokers of pot and tobacco are increasingly looking for safe alternatives to kick their habit. A new generation smoking group has also emerged in the last few years and they are not averse to experimenting with new ideas and stuff. Herbal Smoke is made from high grade smoking blends.










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Is my weed schwag or dank?

Article by IcePick

So you just bought some weed, and you are fairly new to this. Can you go to your buds and tell them you scored some dank? Will they laugh at you because it’s schwag? What really is the difference?

Some people just take a whiff on the baggie to see if it’s good quality. This is a good indicator – but not always. You could buy some really stinky-stinky and not really cop a good buzz. Some pinch a bud see if it’s sticky or if a seed pops out.

There is only one thing on the plant that gets you high – trichromes; without those babies – you’re not feeling a thing. You can’t see the quality of those with the naked eye. And you can’t always feel them. The only way to really know is to take a look at them under a loop.

I have yet to see a buyer pull out a jewelers loop to look at the trichromes, but the grower will look at these as the plant grows, and use them as a indicator of when to harvest. Knowing what a skilled grower is looking for will help you decide if your happy sack is schwag or dank.

The Grower

A grower who is aiming to give the patient or user a dank, superb, quality marijuana will only grow female plants. As she flowers, her flowers will ooze these trichromes. They ooze everywhere and end up on the leaf. Under a loop new trichromes are clear. They look like barbells standing on end, straight up at attention. They also look like sugar to the naked eye. That is where the name sugar-leaf came from.

As she ages, so do the trichromes. As they turn amber in color, it becomes time to harvest. This is all generalized as each strain of weed does different things in flower. Some trichromes are very sticky in nature, as others are oily. Generally if you look at your happy sack, and there are no stems seeds, and nothing but bud – you live in Colorado or California. You should always have dank.

Schwag is poor quality weed. You will find stems and seeds among brown leaf. This weed is given little care. Are started from seed. The grower only has profit in mind. They don’t care if the plant is male or female, or if they pollinate producing seeds. To them – this is only adding weight to their profit line.

When their crap crop stops growing – they start hacking them down – much like hay – and bricks them up for delivery. They don’t give any mind to drying or molding again only adding weight to their product.

Other names for schwag weed are:

Around Town BrownHippy grenadeBrickDitch weedLeafOther names for Dank weed are:Sticky icky ickySweet leafKindFine budKiller Creeper

The PriceThe other distinct the quality of your weed is by price. As the old saying goes – You get what you pay for. This is also true with dank marijuana. At discounts, you could find some real dank weed for around $ 400 ounce. Some think this price is high and they simply wouldn’t pay that much for marijuana. The other side of that argument for weed and for everything cheaper really – the schwag wont work as well and you’ll end up using more of it, which will soon outweigh what you saved by buying schwag.

You average price for and ounce of schwag is about $ 200, but will quickly go down in price by buying quantity. Now that you have your happy sack, you’ll need to take out all the nasties, and the non-smokables. When you get down you’ll quickly find the ounce of weed you bough is now only ¾ of an ounce of usable, smokable material.

The difference between the two different generalizations of weed is clear when you’ve done your homework. Always be proud of your weed. Always obtain it from a trusted local source.

Keeping knowledge alive. See many writings from me at http://passajoint.com










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