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Common usesMain articles: Hemp, Cannabis, Cannabis#Industrial_and_Personal_Uses, and Cannabis (drug)A sack made from hemp fiberIts seed, chiefly used as caged-bird feed, is a valuable source of protein. The flowers (and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds) contain psychoactive and physiologically active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers (marijuana) and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract (hashish) are consumed by smoking, vaporizing and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas, and ointments have also been common preparations. Plant physiologyMain article: CannabisThe bud of a Cannabis sativa plantCannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900. The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Male plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants. Although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression.[citation needed] Naturally occurring monoecious plants, with both male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced “hermaphrodites” (a commonly used misnomer) can have fully functional reproductive organs. “Feminized” seed sold by many commercial seed suppliers are derived from artificially “hermaphrodytic” females that lack the male gene, or by treating the seeds with hormones or silver thiosulfate.A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 1213 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between five to ten weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions.In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi.Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fiber, characterized by long stems and little branching.Cultivars grown for seed from which hemp oil is extracted.Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psychoactive compounds far too low to be useful for that purpose, and marijuana. PharmacologyMain article: Cannabis (drug)9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)Although the main psychoactive chemical compound in Cannabis is 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant is known to contain about sixty cannabinoids; however, most of these “minor” cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts. Besides THC, another cannabinoid produced in high concentrations by some plants is cannabidiol (CBD), which is not psychoactive but has recently been shown to block the effect of THC in the nervous system. Differences in the chemical composition of Cannabis varieties may produce different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, does not contain CBD, CBN, or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations. Chemical constituentsCannabis chemical constituents including about 100 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma (see Cannabis flower essential oil). These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes.9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-PineneMyrceneTrans–ocimene-TerpinoleneTrans-caryophyllene-Humulene, contributes to the characteristic aroma of Cannabis sativaCaryophyllene-oxide, with which some hashish detection dogs are trained See alsoCannabis (drug)Cannabis flower essential oilIndustrial hempHempMedical cannabisReligious and spiritual use of cannabis References^ West, D. P, Ph.D. 1998. Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities. North American Industrial Hemp Council. Retrieved on 23 April 2007^ a b c d e f g Novak J, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Deans SG, Franz CM (2001). “Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. and their antimicrobial activity”. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 16 (4): 259262. doi:10.1002/ffj.993. ^ Essential Oilsv  d  eCannabis resourcesCannabis portalGeneral4/20  Cannabis culture  Cultivation  Effects of cannabis  Legality (By country)  Plant (Indica  Sativa)PreparationsBhang  Cannabis foods  Cannabis tea  Green Dragon (drink)  Hashish (Charas)  Hash oil / Honey oil  Kief  VaporizerUsageIndustrial Use (hemp)  Medical cannabis  Religious and spiritual use of cannabis  SmokingStrainsAcapulco Gold  BC Bud  Holland’s Hope  G-13  Kush  Netherlands Weed  Northern Lights  Panama Red  Purple Haze  Quebec Gold  Skunk  White WidowOrganizationsAAMC  AMMA  ASA  BLCC  Buyers Club  CCRMG  CRC  DPA  FCA  GMM  LCA  LEAP  MAPS  MPP  NORML  OUNORML  Political Parties  POT  SAFER  SSDP  Therapeutics AllianceOtherCannabidiol  Cannabinoids  Cannabis Culture  Endocannabinoid system  High Times  delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC)Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cannabis sativaWikispecies has information related to: Cannabis sativa Categories: Cannabis | Fiber plants | Hemp | Medicinal plants | Medicinal plants of Nepal | Plants used in Traditional Chinese medicineHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008

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