Cannabis sativa – China Hydraulic Couplings – Turned parts
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Common usesMain articles: Hemp, Cannabis, Cannabis#Industrial_and_Personal_Uses, and Cannabis (drug)A sack made from hemp fiberIts seed, chiefly used as caged-bird feed, is a valuable source of protein. The flowers (and to a lesser extent the leaves, stems, and seeds) contain psychoactive and physiologically active chemical compounds known as cannabinoids that are consumed for recreational, medicinal, and spiritual purposes. When so used, preparations of flowers (marijuana) and leaves and preparations derived from resinous extract (hashish) are consumed by smoking, vaporizing and oral ingestion. Historically, tinctures, teas, and ointments have also been common preparations. Plant physiologyMain article: CannabisThe bud of a Cannabis sativa plantCannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c1900. The flowers of the female plant are arranged in racemes and can produce hundreds of seeds. Male plants shed their pollen and die several weeks prior to seed ripening on the female plants. Although genetic factors dispose a plant to become male or female, environmental factors including the diurnal light cycle can alter sexual expression. Naturally occurring monoecious plants, with both male and female parts, are either sterile or fertile but artificially induced “hermaphrodites” (a commonly used misnomer) can have fully functional reproductive organs. “Feminized” seed sold by many commercial seed suppliers are derived from artificially “hermaphrodytic” females that lack the male gene, or by treating the seeds with hormones or silver thiosulfate.A Cannabis plant in the vegetative growth phase of its life requires more than 1213 hours of light per day to stay vegetative. Flowering usually occurs when darkness equals at least 12 hours per day. The flowering cycle can last anywhere between five to ten weeks, depending on the strain and environmental conditions.In soil, the optimum pH for the plant is 6.3 to 6.8. In hydroponic growing, the nutrient solution is best at 5.2 to 5.8, making Cannabis well-suited to hydroponics because this pH range is hostile to most bacteria and fungi.Cultivars primarily cultivated for their fiber, characterized by long stems and little branching.Cultivars grown for seed from which hemp oil is extracted.Cultivars grown for medicinal or recreational purposes. A nominal if not legal distinction is often made between industrial hemp, with concentrations of psychoactive compounds far too low to be useful for that purpose, and marijuana. PharmacologyMain article: Cannabis (drug)9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)Although the main psychoactive chemical compound in Cannabis is 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the plant is known to contain about sixty cannabinoids; however, most of these “minor” cannabinoids are only produced in trace amounts. Besides THC, another cannabinoid produced in high concentrations by some plants is cannabidiol (CBD), which is not psychoactive but has recently been shown to block the effect of THC in the nervous system. Differences in the chemical composition of Cannabis varieties may produce different effects in humans. Synthetic THC, called dronabinol, does not contain CBD, CBN, or other cannabinoids, which is one reason why its pharmacological effects may differ significantly from those of natural Cannabis preparations. Chemical constituentsCannabis chemical constituents including about 100 compounds responsible for its characteristic aroma (see Cannabis flower essential oil). These are mainly volatile terpenes and sesquiterpenes.9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-PineneMyrceneTrans–ocimene-TerpinoleneTrans-caryophyllene-Humulene, contributes to the characteristic aroma of Cannabis sativaCaryophyllene-oxide, with which some hashish detection dogs are trained See alsoCannabis (drug)Cannabis flower essential oilIndustrial hempHempMedical cannabisReligious and spiritual use of cannabis References^ West, D. P, Ph.D. 1998. Hemp and Marijuana: Myths & Realities. North American Industrial Hemp Council. Retrieved on 23 April 2007^ a b c d e f g Novak J, Zitterl-Eglseer K, Deans SG, Franz CM (2001). “Essential oils of different cultivars of Cannabis sativa L. and their antimicrobial activity”. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 16 (4): 259262. doi:10.1002/ffj.993. ^ Essential Oilsv d eCannabis resourcesCannabis portalGeneral4/20 Cannabis culture Cultivation Effects of cannabis Legality (By country) Plant (Indica Sativa)PreparationsBhang Cannabis foods Cannabis tea Green Dragon (drink) Hashish (Charas) Hash oil / Honey oil Kief VaporizerUsageIndustrial Use (hemp) Medical cannabis Religious and spiritual use of cannabis SmokingStrainsAcapulco Gold BC Bud Holland’s Hope G-13 Kush Netherlands Weed Northern Lights Panama Red Purple Haze Quebec Gold Skunk White WidowOrganizationsAAMC AMMA ASA BLCC Buyers Club CCRMG CRC DPA FCA GMM LCA LEAP MAPS MPP NORML OUNORML Political Parties POT SAFER SSDP Therapeutics AllianceOtherCannabidiol Cannabinoids Cannabis Culture Endocannabinoid system High Times delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC)Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cannabis sativaWikispecies has information related to: Cannabis sativa Categories: Cannabis | Fiber plants | Hemp | Medicinal plants | Medicinal plants of Nepal | Plants used in Traditional Chinese medicineHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2008
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